The Contents

Challenging Changes – Connecting Waste Hierarchy and Circular Economy

Preface – Frans Timmermans, Vice-President EC (Brussel)


Survey of circular concepts since 1979

Linear waste and
circular resource management
01 Circular concepts
02 Lansink’s Ladder
03 Industrial developments
04 Zero Waste and Cradle to Cradle
05 European Thematic Waste Strategy
06 Circular Economy

Waste hierarchy:
a challenging framework
07 Conceptual frameworks
08 Prevention
09 Reusing products
10 Reusing (secondary) materials
11 Incineration with(out) energy production
12 Landfilling

Consumers as chain manager

Transition aspects
13 Transitions in waste management
14 Innovation and waste policy
15 (Extended) Producer Responsibility
16 Consumers as chain manager
17 Duty care against market power
18 Acceptance of circular economy

Closing different and difficult loops
19 Supply chain management
20 Cradle to cradle and waste hierarchy
21 Product development and design
22 Logistical challenges
23 Instruments
24 Moving to circular economy

Exemplary resource flows
25 Classic recycling domains
26 Sustainable building and demolishing
27 Textiles, mixing biological and technical cycles
28 Packaging: a special story
29 Plastics: a difficult portfolio
30 Phosphate recycling

Output Waste for Energy plants

Waste and climate policy
31 Recycling above incineration
32 The importance of CO2-footprints
33 Composting and fermentation
34 Bio-based economy
35 Cascading biomass
36 Food and waste

Value creation bio-economy

Need for (international) legislation
37 Dutch experience
38 Importance of waste policy plans
39 All cards on chain management
40 European waste policy
41 Directives and circular economy
42 EP Draft Report CEP 2015-2016

Leaks in circular economy

Changes for circular economy
43 The road to circular economy
44 Plea for uniform terminology
45 Circular leaks
46 Dilemmas for circular economy
47 Global and geopolitical challenges
48 Creating value

Summary of main lines circular economy – Illustration of the approach of chapter Finally: Main Lines, Commentary, Outlook and Recommendations. All images on this page, designed by Sophie van Kempen and Ad Lansink, are derived from Challenging Changes. Photo: AVR (Rotterdam)

49 Main lines
50 Commentary
51 Outlook
52 Recommendations

After all                  

Note: Between the various chapters, the reader finds a series of interviews, titled “Talking with ..” in which the author gives the floor to prominent people in the field of waste management and circular economy.